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BACKGROUND: China's National Essential Public Health Service Package (NEPHSP) aims to promote health for all at the primary health care level and includes a focus on hypertension and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there are limited contemporary data to quantify the care cascades of hypertension and T2DM in primary health care. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved individual level linkage of routinely collected data from the NEPHSP, health insurance claims and hospital electronic health records, from four diverse regions in China, including Xiling District (central China), Wenchuan County (western), Acheng District and Jiao District (northern). We first compared numbers of people aged ≥35 with a recorded diagnosis of hypertension and T2DM against expected numbers derived from epidemiological data. We then constructed care cascades to assess the percentages (1) enrolled in the NEPHSP, (2) adherent to the follow-up care of NEPHSP, (3) receiving medication treatment, and (4) having hypertension and/or T2DM controlled. FINDINGS: In the four regions, the total numbers of people aged ≥35 diagnosed of hypertension and T2DM from any data source were 149,176 and 50,828, respectively. This was estimated to be 46.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45.8%-46.2%) and 45.6% (95% CI: 45.3%-45.9%) of the expected totals for hypertension and T2DM, respectively. Among those diagnosed, 65.4% (95% CI: 65.1%-65.6%) with hypertension and 66.1% (95% CI: 65.7%-66.5%) with T2DM were enrolled in the NEPHSP, respectively, in which 54.8% (95% CI: 54.5%-55.2%) with hypertension and 64.7% (95% CI: 64.1%-65.2%) with T2DM were adherent to the required services. Among those enrolled, the overall treatment rates were 70.8% (95% CI: 70.6%-71.1%) for hypertension and 82.2% (95% CI: 81.8%-82.6%) for T2DM. Among those treated, a further 80.9% (95% CI: 80.6%-81.2%) with hypertension and 73.9% (95% CI: 73.3%-74.4%) with T2DM achieved control. These results varied considerably across regions, with the northern sites showing relatively higher enrolment rates while the central site had higher control rates. INTERPRETATION: Detection and control rates for hypertension and T2DM are suboptimal in these four regions of China. Further strategies are needed to improve people's enrolment in and adherence to the NEPHSP and strengthen care delivery processes. Of note, our estimations of the diagnosis rates for each region are based on national level large epidemiological data. The interpretation of these data needs caution due to potential bias caused by regional variations. FUNDING: This study is funded by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases funding (APP1169757), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (72074065).

Original publication




Journal article


Lancet Reg Health West Pac

Publication Date





Care cascade, China, Hypertension, National Essential Public Health Service, Routinely collected data, Type-2 diabetes